Before we dive deep into various treatment regimens, let’s first understand simple facts about COVID-19.
COVID-19: Covid-19 is a disease caused by the ‘Novel Corona Virus”. CoVs are positive-stranded RNA viruses with a crown-like appearance under an electronic microscope due to the presence of small glycoprotein spikes on the envelope. It is also known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that causes Corona Virus Disease 2019. Below is a schematic representation of how this virus looks like.
For more information about COVID-19 Etiology, click on this link: https://bit.ly/2yhJNRH
Although there is no vaccine currently available in the market for Coronavirus, there are some medicines that play a vital role in preventing symptoms of COVD-19 accentuate any further.
Now let’s take a look at various medicines to fight against COVID-19:
1. Chloroquine & Hydroxychloroquine:
Prima Facie, Chloroquine is a medicine prescribed by the doctors for the treatment of malaria. Evidence has shown that Chloroquine inhibits infection of cells by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Chloroquine basically changes the pH of endosomes and thereby prevents viral entry, it’s transport and post-entry events.
2. Camostat Mesylate:
Camostat Mesylate falls under the category of Protease Inhibitors. Evidence has depicted that this medicine has blocked SARS-CoV-2 in lung cells in vitro. Camostat Mesylate prevents the entry of viruses and blocks the maturation of viruses into the cells.
3. Lopinavir/ Ritonavir:
These Anti-viral medicines under the class of Protease Inhibitors have found to be effective against SARS-CoV-1, both in vitro and they block cellular entry of the virus.
Tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody has evidently reduced fever and provided enough oxygen requirements in COVID-19.
5. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies:
These antibodies bind to viruses and block infection. It also binds to infected cells and changes the immune system.
The University of Oxford has recently stated that its researchers are working painstakingly for the development of a vaccine against COVID-19. Reports suggest that they have started screening healthy volunteers (Aged 18-55) for their upcoming ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Vaccine trial in England’s Thames Valley. For more details click here: https://bit.ly/2WNda8J
Hydroxy-Chloroquine is by far the most effective medicine against COVID-19. Apart from that, various intervention trials have been planned by the government for assessing the effectiveness of Chloroquine and Hydroxy-Chloroquine in preventing infection of Novel Coronavirus Disease. It would be wise to conduct interim analysis from these trials as soon as possible to find out the results that can be applied to the masses across the globe in order to curb the menace of COVID-19 Pandemic.